All books and articles referenced, quoted, or consulted for academic writing must be properly cited. Citing sources gives credit to the person whose idea(s) are being referenced, leads readers to your sources, and helps avoid plagiarism.

Citation for secondary resources depends on the format of the item and the preferred citation style. Course instructors or publications will specify if there is a required style—typically one of the three most used, which are the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual, the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, and the Chicago Manual of Style. Consult the resources below for instructions to construct appropriate citations. 

If you have any questions about citing published sources, please contact a librarian.

Citing Meadville Lombard Archival Material

Archival citation is dependent upon many factors, including your instructor and/or the publication you are writing for. Whatever the specific citation form, all materials from the Meadville Lombard Archives have a collection number, collection name, and box number that should be included in any citation. Processed collections will often include folder numbers and digitized collections will include item numbers that also should be included in the citation. For the purposes of archival citations, the formal name of the Meadville Lombard Archives is “Archives and Special Collections, Meadville Lombard Theological School.” 

If you have any questions about citing items from the Meadville Lombard Archives and Special Collections, please contact the archivist

Citation Tools


Zotero is a citation management software that to help researchers organize, cite, and share research. It is compatible with all online digital resources offered by Meadville Lombard. If you have any questions, please contact the library.

Zotero Bib

Zotero Bib is a simplified version of Zotero designed to generate bibliographies  

Additional Resources